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Kathmandu Declaration on Climate Change

Asia Pacific Summit 2018 – Nepal

Hyatt Regency Kathmandu

December 2, 2018

We, participants from the Asia Pacific region, on the occasion of the Asia Pacific Summit in Kathmandu on 2 December 2018;

Affirming our commitment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as the core mechanism for addressing climate change at the global level, and for relevant countries, the Kyoto Protocol as well;

Welcoming the special report on 1.5 degrees  and exploring the possibilities for stepping up our own ambition in light of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, and in this context, emphasize the importance of the Talanoa Dialogue at 24th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP24) to the UNFCCC;

Concerned about the adverse impact of climate change on socio-economic development, particularly in the least developed, mountainous, landlocked, small island and developing countries and thus emphasizing the need to enhance their adaptive capacities, as well as for the international community to urgently act to address the challenges;

Recognizing that rapid economic development, while contributing to sustainable development and poverty eradication, poses new challenges in dealing with greater energy consumption, and energy security concerns;

Realizing that countries are at different stages of economic development and that our economies have varying dependence, and in many cases, heavy dependence, on fossil fuels, any actions to tackle environmental issues should take into account diverse national and regional circumstances in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as well as our respective capabilities;

Appreciating the efforts of various countries, and national, regional and international organizations which have contributed to the global debate to address climate change;

Realizing that environmental and climate challenges are transboundary and interdependent by nature, and therefore require a holistic approach to address them. Given our geographic proximity and shared environmental assets, strengthened transboundary cooperation and joint action on air, forests, land and soil, nature and biodiversity and water resources are needed;

Achieving the need for cooperation among, and the active engagement of, governments, local administrations, civil society, the private sector and other stakeholders to address environmental and climate challenges;

Widening the aim of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change to ensure a decisive global response to the threat of climate change in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, in enhancing the implementation of the climate actions;

Underscoring the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems and the protection of biodiversity, when taking action to address climate change;


  1. Commit to the common goal of stabilizing global warming in the long run, to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, and to increasing the resilience of vulnerable communities;
  2. Support the work to achieve a common understanding on a long-term global aspirational emissions reduction goal of 1.5 degrees to pave the way for a more effective pre-and-post-2020 international arrangement;
  3. Acknowledge that adaptation is a critical issue for us and as such, emphasis has to be put on both mitigation as well as adaptation measures, and recognize that sustainable development facilitates adaptation;
  4. Carry out individual and collective actions, in a broad range of sectors, to address climate change, considering the principles of equity, flexibility, effectiveness and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, as well as reflecting our different social and economic conditions;
  5. Participate actively in the process of developing an effective, comprehensive, and equitable pre-and-post-2020 international climate change arrangement under the UNFCCC process, and in this context, reiterate our support for the successful outcome of the COP24 to the UNFCCC to be held in Katowice, Poland in December 2018 in developing a just Paris Agreement Work Program;
  6. Underscore the importance of adopting strong implementation guidelines at COP24 in order to unlock the full potential of the Paris Agreement;
  7. Support the objectives of mutual actions to:
    1. elaborate how we will step-up our short-term ambition, and possibilities for enhanced Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) by 2020;
    2. set long-term low emission development strategies, including pathways consistent with the Paris Agreement; and mobilize additional support and investment;
    3. move to shift towards sustainable and integrated management of natural resources, as well as to sustainable consumption and production in line with circular economy principles;
    4. cooperate on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, based on both public and private actions; 
  8. Support mainstreaming of environment, climate change and sustainable development objectives into all policy areas and enhance cross-sector cooperation;
  9. Deepen understanding of our region’s vulnerability to climate change and implement appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures, including through:
    1. Mobilizing financial support and cooperating to build capacity;
    2. Encouraging the deployment of clean technology through various means, such as investment, technical and financial assistance, and technology transfer;
    3. Exchanging of scientific and technical expertise in partnership with international experts;
    4. Commissioning joint studies to assess the impact of climate change and environmental protection efforts;
  10. Intensify ongoing cooperation to improve energy efficiency and the use of cleaner energy by:
    1. Working towards achieving a significant reduction in energy intensity;
    2. Encouraging research, development, deployment and dissemination of technologies to enhance energy efficiency;
    3. Enhancing regional cooperation to develop cost-effective carbon mitigation technologies, and to produce environmental friendly and sustainable biofuels;
  11. Promote cooperation on afforestation and reforestation, and to reduce deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires by promoting sustainable forest management, combating illegal logging, protecting biodiversity, and addressing the underlying economic and social drivers;
  12. Continuing support for the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at regional levels;
  13. Promote co-benefit approaches, which address global environmental challenges through taking measures for national development concerns, including preventing environmental degradation;
  14. Encourage the development of adaptation strategies to mitigate weather-related calamities caused by water;
  15. Foster the conservation and sustainable management of mountain ecosystems and call on the regional and international communities to participate;
  16. Address the environmental challenges posed by rapidly growing urbanization in the region, by, among other measures:
    1. Pooling our experiences, expertise and technology in areas such as urban planning, including transportation, green building, water management, urban greenery and urban biodiversity conservation; sanitation and waste management; 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle); and air, noise, water, and land pollution control;
    2. Appreciating initiatives such as Climate-Smart Cities and Environmentally Sustainable Transport;
  17. Assign our delegation member to follow up and act on our discussions on this Declaration.

Done on this 2nd day of December in the year 2018 in Kathmandu, Nepal.