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M.A.U. Muzahid: Islamic Lifestyle as an Infrastructure for Social Justice

Essay published in Dialogue & Alliance, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2011

Social justice is required, desired, and talked about for human dignity, peace, and progress, but at the same time it is so widely missing in the management of societies in the present world. The likely reasons for the absence of this social justice is the formation of social structures, cultures, and life styles based on wrong founding elements. This has been the result of wanton disregard for religious worldviews in the conduct of secular or mundane life, where religion and religious views address only the spiritual and personal aspects of life.

Islam is a unique religion in the sense that it concerns not only spiritual life but also mundane life. In fact, it embraces all aspects of life, whether political, social, economic, or cultural. It also takes into account the aesthetic aspects of life. Since all such elements which are the integral parts of the whole pattern of life have been prescribed by the Almighty (Allah), the rules of social justice in Islam cannot be excluded from them. In Islam, these elements counterbalance social justice so that the relationships between individuals are governed and regulated on an equitable basis. Thus in the matter of responsibilities, status, and human dignity, every individual occupies an equal position in the sight of the Almighty.

Under such a scheme, no one is permitted to enjoy more rights and give extra responsibilities and obligations to others. Social justice is a complement and an indispensable goal of Islamic lifestyle. The balance of social justice in Islam, in fact, is based on the principles of freedom, equality in opportunities and obligation, and solidarity. Without these founding elements of social structure in their broader sense, it would be futile to talk about social justice. If human beings are not free and equal, social justice would be merely a figment of the imagination.

The paper aims to analyze the working of these elements to ensure social justice in societies following Islamic traditions of life.

According to Islam, the following elements ensure social justice:


Islam recognizes all aspects of man’s freedom.[i] He is free and independent internally as well as externally. He neither carries on his shoulder the burden of eternal sin nor is he born in consequence of the actions of his previous birth. He, according to the Qur’an, is to fulfill the responsibility of Allah’s trust (Al-Amanah) which he himself had chosen when all other creatures had refused to undertake it. Thus, he is Allah’s trustee and His vicegerent on earth. He is, therefore, supposed to behave as Allah, with justice and equity. This cannot be achieved unless he has freedom of action. However, this freedom must always be directed towards the wellbeing of man himself and others. It must not be used to destroy either himself or society.[ii]

Man has not been given freedom to harm others in any way. Human beings, in order to achieve ideal freedom, should break the chain of ignorance, irrationality, and selfishness. As a first step, man has to emancipate himself from the evils which lead him to worshipping fake Gods and deities.[iii]

None but the one and the only Allah, who “releases them from their heavy burden and from the yokes that are upon them,” deserves to be worshipped. Man must also try to break the internal shackles, in order to release himself from inner evils such as lust, selfishness, malice, and jealousy. All such evils are hindrances in the path to man’s freedom. The urge for freedom is the most important condition in the life of man. All are born free and all are equals, because of the very well-known fact that they are all sons and daughters of Adam and Hawah (Eve). Thus the idea of freedom can be termed the causus belli [justification for acts of war, if necessary] for the existence of a healthy society. A healthy society is one in which the individuals who constitute the society accept the limitations to their freedom. The acceptance of such limitations is the intrinsic and voluntary desire and not an imposed one. It is this effective inner urge for self-control that directs and regulates man’s freedom and does not permit him to deviate under the impulse of selfishness and egocentrism.

All the prophets of Allah exhibited the best examples of freedom. They were men who sprang from societies which had lost their paths. The people amidst whom they were born were ignorant and vicious. They were slaves of false gods and deities, slaves of silly rituals and their own lust and low desires. As free men, prophets refused to accept the position of slaves. They rebelled against the types of lives their people were living. They preached their ways and stood fast by their beliefs, unmindful of the torture that was inflicted upon them by their own people. Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) was also tortured. His life was threatened. He was driven away from his homeland. Attempts were made to kill him. However, nothing deflected him from his firm stand. Quraish tried to buy him with money and high positions, but such temptations were meaningless for a man who was free from selfishness

Freedom is an indispensable condition of life. Without freedom, growth is inconceivable. Thus to ensure growth man has been given freedom to acquire the means of livelihood. Man’s freedom as viewed by Islam must be responsive to the sense of balance or law of harmony. The Qur’an and the Sunnah [the practice that Mohammed taught and instituted] have laid down certain definite injunctions regarding human conduct. They denote certain principles for maintaining justice, peace, and order in this world. Man’s life in general, and freedom in particular, is also affected by what others do. It is not that one’s action influences one’s own life only; quite often it reflects on the whole society. Thus, man as an individual has to check himself and others from doing wrong. If he is not watchful, he will also have to pay for the wrongs of others. This also confirms that what is true of the individual is equally true of the nation and of humanity as a whole.


Muslims are free and equal; Islamic society is the society of freedom, equality, and justice. In the perspective of Islam, all human beings are equal. All are the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve (Hawah). Thus, all people are the members of the same family sharing the same origin.[iv] Claims of belonging to the chosen race or of superiority or inferiority have no place in Islam. Prophet Mohammed says:

Verily all the rites and traditions of the ignorance period (Pre-Islamic) are trampled under my feet. No Arab is superior to an Azam (non-Arab) and no Azam can claim superiority over an Arab. You all are the progeny of Adam; and Adam was created out of dust. And you must know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. [Sahih Ibn Hibbani]

So high is the sense of equality in Islam that anyone can feel proud of it. In the sight of Allah, all people are equal. The criterion of differences is neither race nor color but only piety. The Qur’an has explicitly enjoined:

O Mankind, we created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you.[40:13]

All differences that exist between individuals and groups, according to Islam, are accidental. No doubt, in life we come across differences among individuals in terms of wealth, intelligence, physical features, etc. These are accidental in the sense that individuals do not have any control over their births. They are born with different physical features in different societies and families with different levels of richness. It is equally true in the case of nations: some are developed while the others are in the process of development. Nevertheless, all these differences are again accidental in the sense that different nations are endowed with different kinds and sizes of natural resources making it possible for them to become richer or poorer.

Gender equality

Men and women are created from the same origin. In the Qur’an, the relevant injunction is:

O Mankind reverence your guardian – Lord, who created you from a single person, created of like of nature, his mate, and from this twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and woman.[4:1]

It is only their deed which makes them high or low. If they do deeds of righteousness, be they male or female and have faith, they will enter Heaven, and not the least injustice will be done to them [40:13], says the Qur’an. To achieve the highest goal in life and to fulfill the purpose of human life, men and women are to work cooperatively. Men and women are not created to compete with each other but to complement one another. Islam has guaranteed full equality between men and women in all respects of life. A woman has all those rights which a man can claim in the fields of education, economic, financial activities, and so on. The Qur’an is quite explicit on this issue. To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn.[4:32] In the case of marriage, Islam guarantees equality to both sexes. Both are free to exercise their choices. None is permitted to mount pressure on the other or force the other into doing anything against his or her own wishes. The relationship between man and women is sacred indeed. But it must be built on understanding and kindness. The Qur’an bids man live with women on the footing of kindness and equity.[ 4:19]

Islam lays down rules to make life harmonious and enjoins people to ensure that no conflict occurs among the components of human society. All have duties and responsibilities assigned to them which they must carefully fulfill. Men and women each have a well-defined role in life. They should have a well-established plan or a well-determined course of action that they must strictly adhere to.

In this connection it is necessary to point out that consequent upon certain basic facts, the male and female have different roles to play. A woman in order to bear children has to undergo the travail of pregnancy and pain of birth. Again, she is the one who feeds the baby from her breast and gives the baby her affection. As a mother, a woman needs enough time to attend to her children and household. It has to be appreciated that she cannot have her children and go out unless she wants to do injustice to herself, to her children, and to the society as a whole. For this very reason, Islam puts the responsibility of earning a livelihood on the man’s shoulders. It is the bounden duty of a man to provide sustenance to his family.

Justice demands that both the genders discharge their respective duties with a sense of commitment. In the tradition of prophet Mohammed (PBUH), it is recorded that each one of us is a shepherd (responsible) and therefore, each of us is responsible for our flock (i.e., society).[v] Islam lays down rules to regulate the duties of men and women. First, it is the duty of man to protect and maintain women. The divine will commands men to be the protectors and maintainers of women. This is because Allah has given them more (strength) than women, and because they support them from their means.[4:34]

In order to maintain her dignity and chastity, the woman is directed by God not to roam around unnecessarily displaying her beauty to attract others. The Qur’an, addressing the women, says: “and stay quietly in your houses, and make not dazzling display, like that of the former times of ignorance.”[33:33] Despite the fact that men and women enjoy similar rights but due to the exigencies mentioned heretofore, the leadership ultimately rests with the men. The Qur’an supports it. It says: “and women shall have rights similar to the rights of men according to what is equitable; but men have a degree of advantage over them.”[2:228] In the previously mentioned Qur’anic verse, it is clearly stated that men and women share the same rights, but in certain fields, men can do jobs better than women. Similarly, in certain specified fields men cannot excel over the women.

Islam directs that public offices are to be held by men.[vi] It is worth pointing out here that during the lifetime of prophet Mohammed (PBUH) no woman was appointed to any public office; the prophet appointed several men as governors and dispatched them to areas near and distant. He also dispatched envoys and messengers to leaders of various states around the Muslim states, but none among the women was appointed to any one of these jobs. According to one tradition, the prophet said, “They will not prosper who give their lead to a woman.”[vii] The inference that can be drawn that it is not woman’s but man’s responsibility to lead people.

The Prophet here sounded a warning to men who do not heed and follow this directive. They are told that prosperity would not come their way if they withdraw from the position of leadership. Such a direct precept from the prophet makes abundantly clear the position of Islam concerning leadership and claim to public office in general. But apparently there is no harm in women contributing their mite towards the election of the leader (khalifah) and the council of advisors (Majlis-al-shurah). This has its root in the following injunction of the Qur’an: “O Prophet, when believing women come to take the oath of fealty to thee then do thou receive their fealty.”[60:12] The tradition records that women took the oath of fealty before the prophet. However, for obvious reasons he suggested that the better course for women would be not to take part in elections. Such a suggestion is in conformity with the factual situation in which women are not entitled to any public office.

It must be made clear here that Islam differs from other religions and ideologies in respect to strategy and purpose. Unlike other religions, Islam embodies laws and rules of Allah which are straightforward and without any element of conflict. In certain societies that are governed by worldly ideologies, women may be denied the basic rights of a mother. Such societies force women to leave their children, leave their sacred calling, and go out to seek a living. Such societies have no right, then, to deny public offices and leadership to women. It becomes logically obvious that women should ask for public office. But Islam is a religion based on justice. While it seeks to achieve justice it also endeavors to maintain human dignity, chastity, and a spirit of compassion and humanness in general. In fact, Islam is a unique religion and with a unique concept of equality.

Social integration and solidarity, truthfulness, and justice (Al-Adle)

The concept of social integration or solidarity is the third pillar of Muslim social organization.[viii] It is one of the basic elements of the structure of social justice. Solidarity, in Islam, stems from the fundamental principle of Tawhid. Ibn Khaldun used the term asabiyah (roughly translated as the esprit de corps or morale of a group)[ix] for social solidarity and cohesion.[x] In fact, the awareness among Muslims of being one and united or being socially cohesive springs from the concept of the oneness of Allah (wahid-la-sarikalahs). The asabiyah in Islam is not for material or worldly gains. It is for noble and loftier causes. It is a demonstration of obedience to Allah and total adherence to Islamic social order. The ideal Muslims expect nothing from anyone except Allah, and that gives them satisfaction.[2:21]

It is true that man by nature loves his own self and his freedom. But this self-love can destroy him if it is not guarded by some moral standards. In guarding himself against the vanities of his self-love, man actually raises his position, and while so doing he also serves a great social purpose. The life of a Muslim is then in a state of equilibrium. A Muslim, as the Qur’an says, has thus always to turn to Allah by saying “Our Lord: Give us good in this world and good in the hereafter.”[ 2:201]

By virtue of moral education, man is able to share in the task of building up an integrated society and thereby enabled to promote and preserve the welfare of his community. Man can achieve such a noble cause in a state of equilibrium. The state of equilibrium is reached only when a man maintains a balance between himself and his conduct. If man receives no proper guidance, his material instinct will surely dominate his faculties. It is here that the Islamic code of conduct assumes a significant role by providing him with guidance that will elevate his moral standard. And once his moral standard escalates, he reaches a level where he loves to adhere to the path of morality. He then finds himself ever willing and ready to help others and cooperate with them. Such a community of people is indeed essential for a healthy integrated society.

A distinguishing feature of Islam is that it deals with the thorough understanding of life, combining the spiritual and the mundane aspects with a high standard of moral awareness. Apart from this, Islam has set a balance of justice between men’s desires and morals, and between the individual and society. It does not allow anyone to disrupt or even disturb this balance and thereby destroy the state of equilibrium. If the process of cooperation is left to individual mood, then society will certainly be destroyed and the individual himself will suffer. At the same time, if a society is given a free hand to operate without any social and moral restrictions it will exploit, oppress, and even crush the individual. If society is left free to subjugate the individual and restrain his freedom, a severe and bitter struggle would emerge between the individual and society. The feeling of injustice on the part of the individual will shake the social stability and solidarity. Besides, the individual will suffer a terrible psychological setback. He will experience a sense of alienation, which in fact is the most serious phenomenon of the present world. It assumes a frightening proportion when the alienated individuals take recourse to force and violence.

According to Islam, there are two ways of fostering social integration. First is the general direction of enjoining and enforcing the right conduct.[Qur’an 3:104] The foremost directive in this respect is to recognize the basic principles of brotherhood and equality. In other words, it is the recognition of the fact that all human beings are brothers:

The believers are but a single brotherhood. So make place and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah that ye may receive Mercy.[Qur’an 49:10]

The tradition records Prophet Mohammed as saying:

You will see the believers in their mutual kindness love and sympathy just like one body. When a limb complains, the whole body responds to it with sleeplessness and fever.[xi]

Islam nurses and propagates such virtues, which are necessary to draw members of the Islamic community together in close-knit unity and to build good social order. Some of these virtues are adherence to truth, fulfillment of promises, kindness, self-restraint, patience, and resignation. Of all human virtues the most constructive is adherence to truth. It promotes mutual understanding, trust, and cooperation between people. Consequently, it promotes harmony and peace and paves the way for progress. Thus, human beings are enjoined to adhere to the truth.

The Qur’anic injunction bids, “O Ye who believes: Fear Allah and be with those who are true (in word and deed).”[9:119] The Prophet said “You shall speak the truth for truth leads to piety and piety leads to paradise. A man who continues to speak truth and adheres to truth feels he is enrolled near Allah as a great truthful Man.”[xii] The fulfillment of promises on the part of the individual as well as the nation is one of the essential elements in the welfare and stability of communities. The Divine command says, “O ye who believes fulfill (all) obligation.”[5:1]

Kindness is a top virtue among men. It leads to social integration. Kindness to all is warranted by Islam. Islam teaches man to be kind and not to be a tyrant. In the tradition Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) said, “He who is devoid of kindness is devoid of (all) good.”[xiii] Control of tongue or self-restraint in regards to speech is very important in shaping a pious and an integrated life. The Qur’an directs, “Woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and back-bitter.”[104:1] The tradition of the Prophet records, “Control thy tongue to thy self.”[xiv]

Patience and resignation are virtues that serve best the unity and solidarity of a society. Man is enjoined to control his passions and evil appetites and rely on Allah for the best reward. In this regard, the Qur’an directs people to be patient and practice endurance. The Qur’an says “O ye believers-seek help with patience, perseverance and prayer: For Allah is with those who patiently persevere.”[2:153] The Prophet said “Patience is half of faith.”[xv]

The greatest strength of society is its unity, and what jeopardizes that unity is vices. Vices are irrational developments of human propensities. These are deviations from moderation. This transgressed form of the proper limits will subject the self to humiliation and society to gradual decay. As a protection to the stability of the social order, Islam enjoins on its followers to guard against vices. Falsehood, boasting, and hypocrisy are but some of these vices. Falsehood is a dangerous element that leads to social corruption. Under such a vice, facts will be distorted and truth will suffer. People will be in a state of perplexity. This will make them incapable of reaching a definite conclusion. For that Mohammed (PBUH) asked people to avoid falsehood that leads to transgression, and transgression leads to the fire. A man who continues to tell lies and adhere to falsehood is considered a great liar in the sight of Allah.[xvi]

Boasting leads to arrogance. Arrogance is a thick veil which hides one’s shortcomings. This hinders progress and perfection. It is one of the sources of disharmony, hatred, and hostility among people. It is a jeopardizing element to the social system. The Prophet Mohammed directs man to contemplate his humble beginnings as a sperm-drop and his certain end as a handful of dust. In this regard he stated, “Surely Allah removed from you the evils of the age of ignorance and its boast of ancestors. But all men are children of Adam and Adam is from dust.”[xvii] The tradition adds further, “Don’t praise me too much just as the Christians praised the son of Mary. I am just Allah’s servant, say (about me) the servant of Allah and messenger.”[xviii]

Hypocrisy is feigning to be what one is not, or believing what one does not believe, in ideology or in social relations. It causes the destruction of society. Hypocrites are condemned in the strongest terms throughout the holy text and in traditions. In this regard, there is a warning in the Qur’an, “The hypocrites will be in the lowest depth of the fire.”[4:145] The tradition of the Prophet records that “you will find the worst men on the day of resurrection, the one who having two faces will come to these men with one face and to this with another.”[xix]

A very distinct place in the Qur’an and the Hadith is reserved for the relationship between parents and children. Kindness to parents is second to belief in Allah. Its importance is expressed in the following verses of the Qur’an: “Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but him and that ye be kind to parents.”[17:23] Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) responded to a query about to who is the most proper person for good association by saying “thy mother then thy mother then thy mother then thy father and then thy nearest relatives and then thy nearest relatives.”[xx] Kinship comes next only to one’s own family. Relatives deserve care, help, and justice. In this connection the Qur’an directs people as follows: “God commands justice, the doing of good, and liberality to kith and kin.”[16:90] The Prophet warned such people against an unpleasant end of those who cut the ties of blood. He said “One who cuts (blood-tie) shall not enter paradise.”[xxi]

Thereafter comes all the rest: the servants, orphans, neighbors, poor, and needy. People are directed to show compassion and kindness to them all. The Qur’an enjoins here a good turn to all. The directive says, “And do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are near, neighbors who are strangers, the companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet) and what your right hands possess.”[4:36] In this connection the Prophet said, “One whose neighbor is not safe from his mischief shall not enter paradise.”[xxii]

Principles of solidarity and social integration are best described in the following words from a prophetic tradition as mentioned earlier:

You will see like believers in their mutual kindness, love and sympathy just like one body. When a limb complains, the whole body responds with helplessness and fever.

Another means of establishing social solidarity is through watching the activities of people and preventing and forbidding evil in all its forms. It is the responsibility of all people in the community voluntarily to guard against evil. The Qur’an enjoins: “Let there arise out of you a bond of people inviting to all that is good enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong.”[3:104]

The administration of law and dispensation of justice according to the law provide a very healthy mechanism for the purification of society from any circumstances that might lead to crime. Since there is an ever-present fear of the commission of crimes, Islam had prescribed a code of just punishment for preventing crime among the people. In this context, prophet Mohammed (PBUH) said:

Verily those who were before you were destroyed, because when a noble man from them committed theft, they let him off, and when a work man committed theft from among them, they exempted sentence on him. By Allah, had Fatima, daughter of Mohammed, committed theft I would have cut off her hand.[xxiii]


The founding elements of the inner structure of Islamic social organization as prescribed by the Qur’an and Sunnah can be broadly categorized as freedom, equality, and solidarity of mankind. These elements in turn constitute the conceptual infrastructure for social justice in all spheres of human life. As a result, social justice is a concomitant of Islamic lifestyle. Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) managed to build up a unique state in Madinah based on these fundamental principles and elements of Islamic social structure and lifestyle. He made Madinah the highest center of education and citadel of moral values in spite of the dissent of wary tribes that were loose in morals. As Prophet, he sought to establish a social organization based on ideology rather than on blood relationship. He succeeded in achieving this aim by emphasizing the concept of social solidarity. Thus, the pillar of the new sociopolitical structure and the basis of social integrity were laid by the prophet and statesman Mohammed (PBUH). Among these were included the principles of equality, liberty, and fraternity. Prophet Mohammed established an alliance embracing the rich and poor alike and on equal terms. Taking pride in one’s tribe, family, lineage, or wealth and such other constraints vanished. Under this system, the Prophet transformed the divided societies of that time into one integrated nation.[xxiv] In his administration, no special benefits or privileges were reserved to anybody, not even the house of the prophet. The intrinsic value of man consisted in his character and competence. Everyone had the same opportunity and scope to use his talents and abilities. He was then assigned a rank commensurate with these qualities, qualifications, and attainments.

To attain and maintain peace and progress, living in trust, love, harmony, and social justice, people and societies should uphold these exalted virtues of the Islamic lifestyle and worldview without any prejudices.

[i] Abdul Wahab Abdul Aziz Al-Sishani, Huququl insane Wa Hurriyatuhul Asasiyah Fil-Nizam-al-Islami Wal-Nuzul Al-Muasara (Human Rights and Their Fundamental Liberty in Islam and in Contemporary Isms) pp. 319-332; Muhammad Abdullah al-Darraj, Dasturul Akhlaq Fil Quran (Ethical System in the Holy Quran) pp.180-220.; Abul Ala al-Maodudi, Mafahim Islamiyah Haolal Din W-Daolah (Islamic View of Religion and State) Darul-Salam, Kuwait-1397 A.H. pp. 91-100; Yusuf al-Qardawi Shariatul Islam, al-Kutubul al-Islami, Bairut 1393 A.H. pp. 61-62.

[ii] Abdul Wahab Al-Shishani, cf. op. cit., p. 718.

[iii] Syed Qutb, Al-adalah al-ijtimaiyyah fil Islam (Social Justice in Islam) Darul Sharq, Bairut 1394 A.H. pp. 37-38.

[iv] Imam M. Abu Jahrah, Tanjimul Islam Lil-Mujtamah (Islamic Social Policy) pp. 25-30; Abbas Mahmud Al-Aqqad, Al Shuyuiyyah Wal Insaniyyah Fil-Shariyatil Islam (Communism and Humanity in the Islamic Point of View), al-Maktabatul Islmaiyyah, Bairut, pp. 218-282; Abdul Wahab Al-Shishani, cf. op. cit., pp. 643-658; Abul Ala al-Maodudi, Nizamul Hayat Fil Islam (Code of Life in Islam) Muassatur Risalah-Bairut, pp. 35-37.

[v] Al-Bukhari and Muslim, cited by Nasir Ahmed in The Fundamental Teachings of Quran and Hadith, part II, p. 10.

[vi] Al-Mawardi-al-ahkamul-sultaniyyah, p. 5.

[vii] Al-Bukhari in his sahih, vol. 6, p. 10.

[viii] Ali Shariati, On the Sociology of Islam, pp. 119-120; Syed Mahamudan Nasir, pp. 343-345; Syed Abul Ala Madudi, Islam Way of Life, pp. 1-65; Syed Abdul Latif, pp. 177-178.

[ix] Joel Carmichael, The Shaping of the Arabs, p. 272; George Allen and Univin, London, 1967.

[x] Daniel Norman, Islam and the West, London: Edinburgh University Press, 1966, p. 497.

[xi] Bukhari and Muslim, cited by Nisar Ahmed in The Fundamental Teachings of Quran and Hadith, Part I, Kitab Bhovan, (Delhi, 1984) p. 104.

[xii] Ibid., part III, pp. 4-5.

[xiii] Muslim, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op.cit., Part II, p. 26.

[xiv] Ahmed and Tirmizi, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part III, p. 34.

[xv] Miskatul Masabih, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part II, p. 41.

[xvi] Bukhari and Muslim, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part 1, p. 80.

[xvii] Tirmizi Abue Daud, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part III, pp. 16-17.

[xviii] Bukhari and Muslim, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part III, p. 17.

[xix] Ibid., part III, p. 21.

[xx] Ibid., part 1, p. 80.

[xxi] Ibid., part I, p. 86.

[xxii] Muslim, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part I, p. 97.

[xxiii] Bukhari and Muslim, cited by Nisar Ahmed, op. cit., part II, p. 91.

[xxiv] Syed Mahmud-un-Nasir, Islam and Its Concept and History, p. 95.