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EUME ILC 2021, June 24-30: Executive Summary

Europe and the Middle East—An International Leadership Conference (ILC) was held from June 24 to 30, 2021, under the theme “Toward Peaceful Reunification of the Korean Peninsula: Peace and Security.” There were 629 attendees and many more on social media from 90 countries.

The six sessions of the ILC, organized by UPF’s Europe-Middle East branch, focused on a peaceful future for the Korean Peninsula.

The online conference was the first in a series of three ILCs organized between June and August 2021, following the launch of Think Tank 2022 on May 9, 2021.

Think Tank 2022 is a worldwide alliance of experts from a wide range of professional fields—government, academia, civil society, faith-based organizations, the media, business, and the arts—who will work together and pool their best insights as to how the peaceful reunification of North and South Korea can be accomplished in the coming years.

Eminent political leaders, diplomats and scholars from Europe, Eurasia and the Middle East attended the six ILC sessions, two of which were jointly organized with UPF-USA. International Leadership Conferences were held simultaneously in five regions of the world: In addition to Europe and the Middle East, there was Africa, Asia, Japan, and North and South America.

The question of Korea’s peaceful reunification was addressed from various perspectives, and constructive recommendations were proposed.

Session I - Click here
June 24, 2021, 17:00 CET
Theme: “The State of Relations between USA, China and Russia”

This session was held jointly by UPF of Europe and the Middle East and UPF of North America.

The moderator, Dr. Michael Jenkins, president of UPF International, introduced the session and the ILC series, emphasizing the need for cooperation between the six countries involved with the Korean Peninsula: the three superpowers Russia, China and the United States, Japan and the two Koreas.

Doug Bandow, a senior fellow at the US think tank Cato Institute, expressed concern that current US policy encourages Russia and China to come closer through mutual antagonism toward the United States, which needs to be prevented. The United States should not underestimate Russia, which has a significant nuclear threat, and it should consider Russia’s sensitivity regarding Eastern European countries. A compromise could be found about Ukraine and Georgia, he said. Human rights will always be an issue, and this is unlikely to change.

China is a tougher issue, with a bigger economy and having relations with US allies, Mr. Bandow said. The main issue is US domination in East Asia. The Americans would not tolerate China’s presence in their backyard in the way they themselves are standing in China’s backyard. The issue of Taiwan needs de-escalation. China has weaknesses, even economically, so the United States needs to consider the long term and emphasize peace. Mr. Bandow expressed hope that new leaders may seek peace in the future.

Guy Taylor, the national security team leader at The Washington Times, advised the audience to consider the history of the past 70 years to understand the present three-way dynamic between Washington, Moscow, and Beijing. Today the United States is increasingly concerned about China’s rise as an economic and military power, and the risks of conflict are real. During the recent Biden-Putin summit, Chinese and Russian media reports attempted to portray unity between Russia and China against the United States.

The goal of the Biden administration is to free US foreign policy to concentrate on China and not be sucked into quagmire conflicts with Russia, Mr. Taylor said. The nuclear arms control or “strategic stability” agreements have been eroded by the development of more sophisticated weapons. China is not a party to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START) but should bear a greater responsibility in these nuclear arms agreements. The question to ask is “What is the strategic benefit for Russia and China to keep the North Korean nuclear regime going?”

Dr. Georgy Toloraya, the director of the East Asia section at the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, explained that in Russia, and in the BRICS countries in general (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), the overwhelming view is that the old post-liberal world order has passed and the world already has become multipolar. China wants to increase its political clout but doesn’t want to impose its political regime on others, he said.  How does all this influence the Korean situation? Both Russia and China have a long history of cooperation with North Korea, which is their neighbor, and they are interested in maintaining the status quo.

Through its nuclear missile shield, North Korea has achieved strategic parity with the United States, which brings a somewhat stable situation. However, it is unlikely that North Korea will denuclearize, Dr. Toloraya said. We can only talk about arms control. North Korea wants equal and meaningful dialogue with the United States, and there is little prospect for Korean reunification soon. The best scenario is for North Korea to become a “conventional country,” cooperating with its neighbors—but to get there, there is a need to diminish the sense of danger and threat on both sides.

Session II - Click here
Date: June 25, 2021 – 14:00 CET
Theme: “Commemorating the 71st Anniversary of the Korean War” 

As the moderator, David Fraser Harris, the UPF secretary general for the Middle East and North Africa, introduced this session as part of a global series held simultaneously all over the world. Two more ILC webinar series are to follow in July and August 2021, he said.

Dr. Katsumi Otsuka, the co-chair of UPF for Europe and the Middle East, said that the ILC 2021 webinar series commemorates the historic visit by UPF founders Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Sun Myung Moon to Chairman Kim Il Sung in Pyongyang, North Korea, 30 years ago.  Both Rev. and Mrs. Moon, born in what is now North Korea, went through World War II and the Korean War as refugees in their own country, which explains why they have worked ever since for peace and unification on the Korean Peninsula.

The Korean War could be described as a clash between the democratic and communist worlds, Dr. Otsuka said. The Korean Peninsula has been divided between North and South Korea since the armistice was signed in 1953. While today hope for a peaceful reunification has dwindled, especially among the young generation, UPF-Korea is determined to give them hope. The Headwing vision proposed by Rev. and Mrs. Moon aims to embrace rather than destroy one’s enemy or opponent.

Then a short video about the Korean War and the creation of the Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea was shown.

Dr. No Hi Pak, a senior adviser for UPF-Korea, gave an overview of the Korean War. At the end of World War II, the Korean Peninsula was divided at the 38th parallel. On June 25, 1950, North Korean leader Kim Il Sung, with the support of the Soviet Union, invaded the southern half of the peninsula under the pretext of “liberating” it. In response, the United Nations Command was formed, with 16 countries sending troops and five countries giving medical support to South Korea.

Dr. Pak testified about his brother Bo Hi Pak, who had entered the Korean Military Academy only three weeks before the Korean War broke out. When his class of 300 new cadets was sent to the frontline, one hundred were killed. His brother prayed that, if he survived the war, he would devote his whole life to the will of God. This is what he did after meeting Reverend Moon.

Since Reverend Moon’s passing in 2012, his wife, Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon, has been leading all the activities of the Unification movement.  To ensure peace in Northeast Asia and the world, she said, the ideological confrontation between communism and democracy must be abolished by achieving the unification of the Korean Peninsula.  There must be not only geopolitical unification but also the unification of values and ideology among the Koreans. This can be achieved only by practicing true love.

A short video was shown featuring testimonies from three Korean War veterans: a Briton, a Russian and a Belgian. Link

Mélanie Komagata, a post-graduate student in East Asian studies at the University of Geneva, gave a historical overview of the Korean War in commemoration of the 71st anniversary of its start. She described the historical background and motives that led to the fratricidal war.

At the end of the war, she said, the superpowers initially planned to reunite the two Koreas into an independent nation but could not find a consensus about the future of Korea. In 1948, the Republic of Korea was established in the south and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the north. In 1950, Kim Il Sung saw his chance to invade the South. The United Nations voted to intervene in the war in the absence of the Soviet ambassador at the Security Council. The final ceasefire was signed in July 1953 when Chairman Kim of the DPRK accepted the status quo, but the ROK was not included among the signatories, leaving the parties technically at war.

In closing remarks, Jacques Marion, the co-chair of UPF for Europe and the Middle East, spoke about the UPF founder’s vision for the Korean Peninsula. Reverend Moon said that, in relation to its big-power neighbors, Korea is like the ball bearing of a machine, which allows the various components of the machine to rotate harmoniously. A reunified Korean Peninsula would be a center for trade and economic development in Northeast Asia and the world, a vision embodied in the International Peace Highway project.

The way for reunification promoted by Reverend Moon is trust based on cooperation, based on the common values embodied in Korean culture, Mr. Marion said. The division at the 38th parallel also bears witness to the division of ideologies that separated East and West during the Cold War. For the reunification of North and South, political and economic cooperation does not suffice. Peace must be rooted in common values based on the highest principle of peace, which is love.

Session III - Click here
Date: June 29, 2021 – 10:00 CET
Theme: “Europe and Russia’s Relations to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea”

As the moderator, Hon. Keith Best, a former member of the UK Parliament and current chair of UPF UK, invited the audience to learn about one of the most important subjects concerning geopolitics—Europe and Russia's relationship to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Professor Natalia Romashkina, head of the Information Security Problems Group at the National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russia, began by briefly recalling her family connection with Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il during her childhood in Russia. She then spoke of President Vladimir Putin’s recent assessment of the high level of nuclear threat on the Korean Peninsula, caused by the combination of DPRK missiles and UN-imposed sanctions.

The US refusal of Russia’s request that the UN lift economic sanctions during the pandemic will be an obstacle to the denuclearization process, she said. As the situation on the Korean Peninsula is now a global issue, Russia hopes not only that the United States and Russia will catalyze change but also that the six-party talks can resume with European support. Measures of trust need to be restored, she concluded.

Dr. Edward Howell, a stipendiary lecturer in politics at the University of Oxford’s New College in the United Kingdom, shed light onto moments of attempted reforms in recent world history to underline the complexity of change on the Korean Peninsula. He analyzed the Korean issue focusing on three points: the leaders and decision-makers involved, the regions involved, and the broader perspective of the relationship between nations and world-level systems that maintain peace and security.

Taking into account these numerous facets, he said, instead of constantly focusing on the end goal, we ought to pick at this problem one careful step at a time, the ultimate question being “How can we build trust?” He suggested that the United States change its strategy to see more progress, changing the goal from total denuclearization to something realistically attainable as a first step, such as threat reduction to its region or the United States.

Maj. Gen. (ret.) Mats Engman, a distinguished military fellow at the Institute for Security and Development Policy in Sweden, co-headed the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission in Panmunjom from 2015 to 2017. Referring to the experience of Sweden, a neutral nation, he spoke of the need, in a competitive security environment, to promote the rule of law, predictability and transparency in order to reduce risk and advance stability. He noted, from his own experience, that there are also major political, economic and cultural differences regarding Korea.

He listed potential points of action on the peninsula, including a renewed participation of alliances, more dialogue between Russia, China, and Europe, and supporting the DPRK and offering humanitarian relief regarding the COVID pandemic. He concluded that although Sweden and East Asia are far apart, there are many similarities, allowing his country to act as a facilitator in collective security-related issues and trust building.

Jack Corley, UPF chair for Eastern Europe, spoke of the “Headwing ideology” concept of UPF founder Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon in relation to the Korean Peninsula.  He testified that Reverend Moon met hate with the wisdom of love and broke down ideological, political and racial barriers to make room for dialogue and positive exchange between conflicting parties. Establishing an automobile factory in North Korea and constructing a spiritual/cultural center in Pyongyang opened doors to the leadership of North Korea.

Mr. Corley concluded by highlighting Russia’s role in the process of peace on the Korean Peninsula. Russia can offer a face-saving way for the North Korean leadership to make the necessary changes, he said.

Session IV - Click here
Date: June 29, 2021 – 20:00 CET
Theme: “Biden Administration Policies and the Reunification of the Korean Peninsula”

The session began with a brief introduction by the moderator, Kaeleigh Moffitt, congressional liaison of UPF, followed by four presentations by panelists with considerable insight into the field of foreign policy analysis.

Hon. Dan Burton from the U.S. House of Representatives (1983-2013) explained that the Biden Administration’s utmost priority is stabilizing the United States enough so that it can extend its influence abroad. He pointed out the risks of increasing the national debt while attempting to keep the economy afloat, as well as the risks of diminishing the US ability to protect its interests abroad by cuts in the military budget, considering the rapid militarization of China. 

A crucial factor for the reunification of the peninsula would be consistent US foreign policy with North Korea, he said, following in the footsteps of the Trump Administration. He pointed to the importance of face-to-face meetings for discussion of possible economic support of the DPRK. Referring to the Reagan Administration’s Strategic Defense Initiative (sometimes called “Star Wars”), Mr. Burton mentioned the possible use of modern technology to make nuclear weapons obsolete.

Harry Kazianis, the senior director of Korean studies at the Center for the National Interest in the United States, said that the drop in foreign policy actions was largely due to the COVID-19 pandemic that forced both the US and the DPRK to turn inward. At this early stage, he suggested, President Biden most probably would not look to reopen risky negotiations that lack political capital right now.

The Korean people surely will reunite, he said, but not in the foreseeable future. A collapse of the Kim regime would stir the greatest international crisis, he concluded, forcing the international community to act quickly and effectively to secure nuclear weapons and help rebuild the society. Issuing a formal declaration ending the Korean War could be a good trigger to dialogue between the DPRK and the US, he suggested, and could serve as political capital for Kim Jong Un.

Dr. Barthelémy Courmont, a senior research fellow at the Paris-based Institute of International and Strategic Relations, recalled President Biden’s recent meetings with world leaders in Europe, including South Korean President Moon Jae-in. “We saw smiles, good intentions, and promises when it comes to multilateralism, for instance, but in the end we also saw the limits of this administration,” he noted. Denuclearization during the Biden presidency lacks probability. North Korea’s priority is survival.

The Trump Administration’s decisions to meet Kim Jong Un broke the status quo of previous administrations but such actions cannot be expected from the Biden presidency in the next four years. Dr. Courmont stressed the importance of keeping sanctions in place to mount pressure on the country through comprehensive international cooperation. Sanctions will not bring about democratization but can be used as a tool of negotiation.

Dr. Alexander Vorontsov, chairman of the Department for Korean and Mongolian Studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, agreed that the Biden Administration is taking a step-by-step new approach, but questioned whether this is sufficient to restart the dialogue. As a first step toward reunification, inter-Korean communication should be restarted, he said. Will the Biden Administration allow South Korea to do something different?  What is achievable is to preserve the present, relatively calm situation, because this can help to prevent North Korea from conducting further nuclear or long-range missile tests.

The question is whether the Biden administration is ready to soften the sanctions, without which there is no hope for the resumption of dialogue. The only way forward, Dr. Vorontsov concluded, would be the long-term coexistence of the two Koreas, during which they would cooperate economically through a gradual process of engagement and through the agreements that were signed at the 2007 inter-Korean summit.

Session V - Click here
Date: June 30, 2021 – 10:00 CET
Theme: “The United Nations and the Korean Peninsula: Toward De-Escalation and Rapprochement on the Korean Peninsula”

The moderator was Srruthi Lekha, a UN representative for peacebuilding and youth leadership who works with Women’s Federation for World Peace International, an organization that is affiliated with UPF. Ms. Lekha introduced the session, which aimed to provide resources and good practices for the de-escalation of tensions through disarmament and trust-building strategies.

Ambassador Dr. Jesus Domingo, ambassador of the Philippines to New Zealand and former assistant secretary of foreign affairs of the Philippines, said that he was offering his personal views and not those of his government. After explaining some of the terminology that frequently is used regarding nuclear weapons, he gave an “advantage” to possessing nuclear weapons: preventing nuclear war through the principle of Mutually Assured Destruction. “However, they violate international humanitarian law,” he said, “violating the four principles of humanity, distinction, proportionality and necessity.”

He invited the audience to imagine the positive effect if most or all the money used for nuclear weapons were invested in the socio-economic development of a country. He concluded by saying that longtime experience has shown that sanctions never reach the goal and that they severely harm the population of a country. Other methods should be used to reach a necessary political goal, he said.

Dr. Tariq Rauf, a former head of verification and security policy at the International Atomic Energy Agency, stated that implementation of sanctions, by the UN or any other power, has not produced a single instance of success in reversing the development of weapons of mass destruction. In fact, the record shows that sanctions in some cases even accelerated the development of weapons of mass destruction.

Moreover, there always has been a devastating effect on the population of the country. It is high time we turn to a step-by-step approach, he said: lifting or reducing sanctions while at the same time demanding non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. This would gradually allow the socio-economic development of the country and the building of trust.

Dr. Angela Mickley, a professor of peace education, conflict resolution and ecology at Potsdam University of Applied Sciences in Germany, explained that politics often produces pressure, but pressure needs to be relieved and space for experience needs to be created to allow development. She gave the examples of Northern Ireland and Namibia, where conflicting parties were taken to a remote place to find ways of dealing with their conflict peacefully.  She said she has been invited to South Korea by the Ministry of Unification to prepare the necessary steps for reunification.

She described her experience in East Germany after the unification of East and West, as her whole family lived there. It was like becoming a refugee in one’s own country, she said, and “having the rug pulled from under your feet.” One of the reasons was that people in communist countries were used to having someone run their life and making most of the decisions. Therefore, she believes, it will be even more difficult for the people of North Korea.

Heiner Handschin, the director of the UPF Office for UN Relations at the United Nations Office, Geneva, said we should keep an open mind about Korean reunification. According to the chief negotiator for German reunification, Dr. Claus J. Duisberg, at the beginning of 1989 nobody believed that German reunification was going to happen.

Regarding UN support for this issue, Mr. Handschin said he sees two major problems: first, the UN is mainly focused on the West. Second, the United Nations was partisan in the Korean War and is still perceived by the DPRK as a hostile force, so even though the DPRK joined the UN and many related international organizations in 1991, there is still a feeling of distrust, even enmity, toward the UN.

Mr. Handschin reported about some ongoing track II diplomacy that UPF and its partners have been conducting to launch the project of a UN representation for Asia in the Demilitarized Zone. In conclusion, he offered a vision, developed by UPF and its partners, of a larger UN peace complex, or even a UN city, in the Demilitarized Zone as a place of peaceful cooperation in the pristine natural environment between the two Koreas. 

Session VI - Click here
Date: June 30, 2021 – 15:00 CET
Theme: “Europe and the Korean Peninsula”

The moderator, Peter Haider, president of UPF-Austria, said that even though an armistice was signed in July 1953 to end the armed violence of the Korean War, the peninsula remained divided and no peace treaty was signed between North and South Korea. Whether lasting peace can be created in the region depends to a large extent on multilateral cooperation among the superpowers.

Europe’s role is not over yet, Mr. Haider said. It has evolved from military intervention to a soft-power approach, economic cooperation with South Korea, humanitarian aid for and diplomacy with North Korea.

Dr. Walter Feichtinger, president of the Center for Strategic Analysis in Vienna, sent a video message in which he first assessed the security situation in the western Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and, subsequently, the impact Europe may have in this regard. The threat coming from North Korea helps the United States to provide a security umbrella for and intensify cooperation with its allies in the region, while increasingly being challenged by China. The growing tensions between China, Russia and the United States are not conducive to peace in the region, he said.

Europe, a co-signer of the non-proliferation treaty, fears that North Korea may inspire other authoritarian regimes to develop nuclear weapons. The more the United States is shifting its interests and resources into the western Pacific, the more Europe should take its security into its own hands.  He concluded by saying that peace in Northeast Asia much depends on how the relationship between China and the United States will develop.

Alyn Ware, director of the Peace and Disarmament Program at the World Future Council, spoke about two initiatives he has been involved with. The first is a proposed Northeast Asian nuclear-weapon-free zone, which would denuclearize not only North Korea but also other key countries in the region, creating a cooperative security framework modeled on nuclear-free zones in other regions. The common security framework is supported by the two Koreas and Japan.

The other initiative is the PyeongChang Peace Forum, which aims at elevating sports diplomacy. This initiative expands the peace process beyond the political sphere. The forum has demonstrated that there are many ways to move forward while showing mutual respect for all parties. Many efforts, however, are being hampered by the comprehensive sanctions against the North Korean regime. Mr. Ware believes they should be replaced by targeted sanctions, so that there is more room for humanitarian aid and citizen diplomacy.

Dr. Beatrice Bischof, from the Foreign Affairs Association in Munich, Germany, spoke of the Korean-German relationship, which began 136 years ago. After World War II and the Korean War, both Germany and Korea were divided. The German Democratic Republic and North Korea established diplomatic relationships in 1949, and the Federal Republic of Germany established diplomatic relations with South Korea in 1955. After the reunification of Germany, the ties became even stronger.

To boost people-to-people exchange, Dr. Bischof suggested creating economic hubs in the Demilitarized Zone to allow women from the North and the South to cooperate on common projects. South Koreans do not want to absorb the North, as they fear the economic impact this would have. Both North and South Koreans prefer a step-by-step approach of integration, a process of coexistence and common prosperity, whereas the United States wants North Korea to denuclearize first.  Germany favors a carrot-and-stick approach: It wants the dialogue to continue, but also the sanctions to be supervised.

The final speaker, Dr. Dieter Schmidt, a medical doctor and the chairman of UPF for Central Europe, quoted UPF founder Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon: “Efforts to improve relations between two nations in political, economic or military fields will lead to unity only if they are motivated by true, selfless love.” Unlike any other religious leader, Reverend Moon had the courage to clearly denounce the Juche ideology in the North Korean parliament. Because of Reverend Moon’s love for North Korea and its people, however, Chairman Kim Il Sung welcomed him as his brother.

The joy that Europeans have felt in traveling freely to former East Germany and Eastern European nations may inspire young Koreans on both sides to strive for reunification of the Korean Peninsula. Unification has proved to be a long process of relationship-building and reconciliation. The division of Korea is related to World War II, which started in Europe. Therefore, Europeans feel the urge to support the unification process on the Korean Peninsula. As China, Russia, and the United States are involved, this will have a worldwide impact.

Closing Session - Click here
Date: June 30, 2021 – 16:15 CET
Theme: “Think Tank 2022 Recommendations”

In the Closing Session, a summary was given of Think Tank 2022 recommendations made in this ILC 2021 webinar series. The moderator was Jacques Marion, co-chair of UPF for Europe and the Middle East.

Dr. Katsumi Otsuka, the co-chair of UPF for Europe and the Middle East, said that he was pleasantly surprised by the large number of participants from Europe, the Middle East and other parts of the world in this ILC webinar series on the theme of Korean reunification. After all, the division of the Korean Peninsula is not just a matter of one faraway nation but the result of a conflict of ideologies and value systems. Europe’s role in this context has gained momentum.

Dr. Otsuka spoke about Think Tank 2022, a global think tank established by UPF co-founder Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon for the reunification of the Korean Peninsula.  He ended with a quote from a movie: “We all want to help one another. Human beings are like that. We want to live by each other’s happiness, not by each other’s misery.”

Dr. Afsar Rathor, the president of the environmental NGO Lios Soil, Austria, summarized the recommendations given by the speakers who participated in the six webinars held since June 24:

  • Confidence-building measures: Removal of mines in the DMZ, joint recovery operations and increased joint exercises by North and South Koreans;
  • More people-to-people contact, a comprehensive plan for family reunion, as happened before;
  • Organization of joint cultural events, student exchange programs;
  • Enhanced communication and engagement among the leaders of the two Koreas;
  • Address the DPRK’s security concerns and remedy the lack of trust;
  • Revival of the six-party talks, without the pre-condition of denuclearization;
  • Support corona vaccination of North Koreans by providing free vaccines;
  • A more active role for Europeans, as most European countries can communicate with both North and South Korea;
  • Graduated sanction relief, particularly humanitarian aid;
  • Role of NGOs and civil societies in North Korea, to help in the aftermath of the pandemic;
  • No compromise on human rights issues, not as a pre-condition but as part of the process;
  • Turning the DMZ into a peace zone by establishing a peace park;
  • Foreign direct investment in North Korea to create jobs, prosperity, also as part of the process;
  • Vigorous UN participation, stationing UN peacekeepers in the DMZ, building of a fifth UN Office;
  • South Korea and North Korea recognize each other;
  • Nuclear-weapon-free Northeast Asia.

These recommendations will be compiled and offered as part of Think Tank 2022 to stimulate a constructive dialogue on the Korean Peninsula.

Dr. Michael Balcomb, regional president for Europe and the Middle East of Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU), an organization that is affiliated with UPF, addressed the webinar via a recorded message. He mentioned that many of the panelists in the ILC had spoken about the shortcomings of the peace process on the Korean Peninsula: North Korea is still following the same path, and there is little people-to-people engagement, while normal diplomacy has been challenging.

Still, he has not given up hope, he said. Thinking of the thousands of soldiers who died in the Korean War, he believes their blood is crying out from the ground for the peace that everyone wants to see. The more so as the countries that fought in the war are no longer enemies but play football together now. 

Dr. Balcomb mentioned that at an ILC webinar former US Congressman Matt Salmon said, “There has to be the intervention of God.” Although UPF is a secular organization, its founders, Father and Mother Moon, often said that the problems of this world are not simply human problems; they need a spiritual solution, even a divine solution. Dr. Balcomb said he believes that, despite the difficulties, we could be at a turning point.

In closing, Jacques Marion announced that the next two International Leadership Conferences would take place on July 27-29 and August 20-21.

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